新人自制 熟肉版本 维基百科 大西洋东南航空2311号航班

By cz3354 at 2016-02-04 09:54:52 • 4661点击

本翻译非官方,如有不同请见谅

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Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311 was a regularly scheduled commuter flight from Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport to Brunswick Golden Isles Airport which suffered an uncontrolled collision with terrain during landing approach just north of Brunswick, on April 5, 1991. The aircraft was an Embraer 120RT Brasilia, registered N270AS.
大西洋东南航空2311航班是一个从亚特兰大哈兹菲尔德-杰克逊国际机场到不伦瑞克黄金岛机场的定期往返航班1991年4月5日,此飞机失控坠毁在不伦瑞克北部,飞机是Embraer 120RT,注册号N270AS。
A few minutes before the aircraft impacted the ground, controllers at Glynco Jetport cleared flight 2311 for a visual approach to runway 07 at the airport. Witnesses reported that as the airplane approached the airport, it suddenly turned or rolled to the left until the wings were perpendicular to the ground. The airplane then fell in a nose-down attitude and disappeared out of sight behind the trees.[1] Four years later, another Embraer Brasilia of ASA crashed in the Georgia countryside in similar circumstances, with nine fatalities.
在飞机撞击地面前的几分钟,塔台对2311号航班说可以目视进近07跑道,目击者报告说,当飞机接近机场时,它突然向左转动,机翼与地面垂直。飞机进入俯冲形态,消失在树的后面。四年后,另一架大西洋东南航空的Embraer 120RT在相似的情况下坠毁在格鲁吉亚农村,死亡九人。

cz3354 at 2016-02-04 09:56:55
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Flight history
飞行史
The aircraft involved in the accident was an Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia, manufactured on November 30, 1990. It was equipped with two Pratt & Whitney PW-118 engines and Hamilton Standard 14RF-9 propellers. The airplane received its U.S. standard airworthiness certificate on December 20, 1990. The aircraft had accumulated about 816 flying hours prior to the accident. Only one deferred maintenance item was noted in the maintenance logs. This was for fuel leaking from the auxiliary power unit cowling. The circuit breaker for the APU had been pulled while spare parts could be made available to fix the cowling.
涉事的飞机是巴西利亚制造的Embraer EMB-120,1990年11月30日出厂。它配备了两台普惠pw-118引擎和一副汉密尔顿标准14rf-9螺旋桨。飞机于1990年12月20日获得美国标准适航证。这架飞机在事故发生前飞行了816小时。只有一次维修记录,原因是燃料的辅助动力装置罩泄漏。所以APU的断路器被拉开以安装装置罩的备件。
Captain Mark Friedline, age 34, had been hired by Atlantic Southeast Airlines in May 1981. He was fully qualified to fly three different commercial aircraft including the EMB-120. It was estimated that at the time of the accident, he had accumulated about 11,724 total flying hours, of which 5,720 hours were in the EMB-120. He had been involved in the development of the EMB-120, and its introduction to service in the United States, and was trained to fly the aircraft by the manufacturer. An inspector described his knowledge of aircraft systems \"extensive\", and his pilot techniques as \"excellent\".
机长friedline,34岁,1981年五月加入大西洋东南航空。他有资格飞三种不同的商用飞机包括EMB-120。据估计,事故发生时,他有约11724小时的飞行经验,其中5720个小时是在飞EMB-120。他曾参与把EMB-120型飞机引入美国的任务,和担任试飞此飞机的任务。一位检查员描述了他对飞机系统的知识广泛,以及他的飞行技术优秀。
First Officer Hank Johnston, age 36, was hired by Atlantic Southeast Airlines in June 1988. He was a qualified flight instructor. Because more than 6 months had passed, since he had undergone an FAA medical inspection and he was issued with a first-class certificate, it automatically reverted to a second-class certificate. A second-class certification was adequate for his duties as a first officer. At the time of the accident, it was estimated that he had accumulated about 3,925 total flying hours, of which 2,795 hours were in the EMB-120.
副驾驶汉克庄士敦,36岁,在1988年6月加入大西洋东南航空。他是一个合格的副驾驶。因为他6个多月内通过了FAA的医学检查,并且得到了FAA的二等飞行员证书,二等认证已经足够让他当上副驾驶。事故发生时,据估计,他共有3925小时的飞行经验,其中2795个小时是在飞EMB-120。
Flight Attendant Cindy Crabtree, age 30, was hired by Atlantic Southeast Airlines in 1986.
空姐辛迪瑰珀翠,30岁,在1986年加入大西洋东南航空。

cz3354 at 2016-02-04 09:58:17
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Accident
事故
On the morning of the accident, the captain and the first officer arrived at the Dothan Regional Airport by taxi about 06:15. The taxi cab driver reported that the crew was in good spirits and readily engaged in conversation. The crew flew first to Atlanta, then performed a round trip to Montgomery, Alabama, before returning to Atlanta. After this round trip, the crew had a scheduled break for around two and a half hours, in which they were described to be well rested and talkative.
事故发生在早上,大约在6:15分机长和副驾驶乘坐出租车到达了机场。出租车司机报告说,机组的精神状态很好。机组先飞到亚特兰大,然后进行从蒙哥马利到阿拉巴马州的往返,才回到亚特兰大。经过这一轮的旅程,机组人员有一个预定的休息时间约2个半小时,在其中他们被描述为精神状态良好。
Flight 2311 was scheduled initially to be operated by N228AS, another EMB-120 . However, this airplane experienced mechanical problems, and so the flight was switched to N270AS. This aircraft had flown four times already on the day of the accident with no reports of any problems. The flight departed just before 14:00.
2311航班计划最初是由一架编号为N228AS的EMB-120直飞。然而,这架飞机有机械问题,所以飞机换成了N270AS。这架飞机已经飞了四次,在事故发生的当天,没有任何问题。该航班在14:00起飞。
The flight crew then took off 23 minutes behind their planned schedule and flew the aircraft to Brunswick, deviating slightly to avoid poor weather. Just after 14:48, the flight crew acknowledged to Jacksonville air route traffic control center that the airport was in sight, and flight 2311 was subsequently cleared for a visual approach to Glynco Jetport, which the flight crew acknowledged.
机组23分钟后,飞到不伦瑞克,此时飞机改变了航向,以避免恶劣的天气。就在14:48,机组联系到了杰克逊维尔的空中航线交通管制中心,机场就在眼前,2311航班随后开始进近。
The last transmission received from flight 2311 was to the ASA manager at the airport, who reported that the flight made an “in-range call” on the company radio frequency and that the pilot gave no indication that the flight had any mechanical problems. Witnesses reported seeing the aircraft approaching the airport in visual meteorological conditions at a much lower than normal altitude. Several witnesses estimated that the aircraft flew over them at an altitude of 100 to 200 feet above the ground.

cz3354 at 2016-02-04 09:59:10
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从2311号航班到机场前的最后一次无线电呼叫是对航空公司的经理,他报告说,该航班在公司的无线电频率上发出了“范围内的呼叫”,飞行员没有说出任何迹象表明飞机有问题。目击者称,飞机在远低于正常高度的条件下接近机场。有几个目击者估计,飞机在海拔100到200英尺的高度飞越了他们。
The majority of the witnesses reported that the airplane suddenly rolled to the left until the wings were perpendicular to the ground. The aircraft then descended in a nose-down attitude and disappeared from sight behind trees near the airport. One witness told investigators that they saw a puff of smoke emanate from the aircraft prior to or subsequent to the airplane rolling to the left. Others reported loud engine noises described as a squeal, whine, or an overspeeding or accelerating engine during the last moments of the flight, although they said that these noises seemed to have stopped, or at least faded before the aircraft impacted with flat ground two miles short of the runway.
大部分目击者报告说,飞机突然滚到左边,直到翅膀垂直于地面。这架飞机的机头急速下降,在机场附近的树木后消失了。一位目击者告诉调查人员,他们看见一股烟散发在飞机的左后部。其他目击者把响亮的发动机噪音描述为一声尖叫,发动机在飞行的最后时刻,他们说这些声音似乎已经停止了,或许飞机撞击在了离跑道2英里的平面上。
An observer driving along a road southwest of the airport told an NTSB investigation that he saw the airplane in normal flight at normal altitudes, and that he believed that the approach was not abnormal. The airplane completed a 180-degree turn from the downwind leg of the approach and continued the turn. He then saw the aircraft pitch slightly, before it rolled to the left until the wings were vertical. The airplane then turned nose-down and smashed into the ground. He saw no fire or smoke during the flight and he believed both propellers were rotating.
一个观察者当时正驾车沿机场路西南方向行驶,他告诉NTSB调查他在不正常海拔看到不正常飞行的飞机。飞机完成了从该方向的顺风转180度,继续转。然后,他看到飞机偏左,直到翅膀垂直。飞机然后机鼻朝下,摔在地上。他没有在飞行过程中看到火或烟,他认为螺旋桨在旋转。

cz3354 at 2016-02-04 10:00:01
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调查
An investigation carried out by the National Transportation Safety Board initially determined that a malfunction of the asymmetric flaps, ailerons or rudder could not have caused the accident, after multiple pilots in simulators managed to keep the aircraft under control. Engine failure was also ruled out by detailed inspection of the two engines. The investigators found that the circumstances of this accident indicate that a severe asymmetric thrust condition caused a left roll that led to loss of control of the airplane. The investigation examined all the possible events that could have caused the loss of control. The powerplant and propeller examinations indicated that the engines were operating normally but that a propeller system malfunction occurred which caused abnormally low propeller blade angles and a high drag condition on the left side of the aeroplane.
调查由美国国家运输安全委员会(NTSB)进行,调查员初步确定故障的非对称襟翼、副翼和方向舵,在模拟器飞行员都能设法让飞机恢复控制。NTSB也排除了发动机故障。但调查人员发现,这起事故有可能是一个严重的非对称推力(具体指两台发动机推力不同)问题造成了左滚,导致飞机失去控制。调查员研究了可能造成的损失的所有可能的问题。发动机和螺旋桨的检查表明,发动机运转正常但螺旋桨系统故障引起的螺旋桨叶片的角度非常低和对飞机的左侧旋转状态。
The NTSB found that the flight crew would have been unable to perceive any problem with the airplane until the propeller blade angle was between 24 and 26 degrees. They stated that the airplane would have \\\"become very difficult to control after the propeller reached the 22-degree stop. Therefore, it is most likely that the pilots of flight 2311 did not notice a problem with the airplane until the propeller began to overspeed and roll control was affected.\\\" Thus, the flight crew would have been unable to declare an emergency as the event was so sudden.
NTSB发现机组人员都已无法感知飞机的任何问题,直到螺旋桨叶片角度为24度和26度之间。他们说:飞机变得非常难以控制后,螺旋桨已到22度停止。因此,最有可能的是,2311航班的飞行员感觉不到螺旋桨开始超速和滚转对飞机的控制影响。”因此,机组人员也无法发出无线电说发生了紧急情况。

cz3354 at 2016-02-04 10:01:06
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Whilst in the final report, it was accepted that the fact that Atlantic Southeast was overworking pilots, estimating that the pilots only received 5 to 6 hours of sleep, contrary to FARs played no part in the accident, the NTSB raised concerns that the airline, along with other commuter airline corporations, "scheduled reduced rest periods for about 60 percent of the layovers in its day-to-day operations. The Safety Board believes that this practice is inconsistent with the level of safety intended by the regulations, which is to allow reduced rest periods as a contingency to a schedule disruption, and has the potential of adversely affecting pilot fitness and performance."
在最后的报告里,事实是大西洋东南航空太高估飞行员,飞行员只睡了5~6小时,相反,在事故没有FARs,NTSB担心航空公司会减少飞行员百分之60的休息时间。安全委员会认为,这种做法是不符合规定的安全水平的,减少休息时间计划应该中断,并且会潜在的对飞行员的健康和性能造成不利影响。
Eventually, the NTSB concluded that the probable cause of the accident was:
最终,NTSB认为事故的原因可能是:
the loss of control in flight as a result of a malfunction of the left engine propeller control unit which allowed the propeller blade angles to go below the flight idle position. Contributing to the accident was the deficient design of the propeller control unit by Hamilton Standard and the approval of the design by the Federal Aviation Administration. The design did not correctly evaluate the failure mode that occurred during this flight, which resulted in an uncommanded and uncorrectable movement of the blades of the airplane’s left propeller below the flight idle position.
由于左发动机螺旋桨控制单元的故障使得螺旋桨叶片的角度在飞行的中发生故障,导致飞机失去控制。事故的贡献是美国联邦航空局的螺旋桨控制装置的缺陷设计设计不正确的评价,在这个航班发生了失效,导致飞机的左螺旋桨飞行怠速位置下面的叶片突然运动。
Notable passengers
飞机上有名的乘客
Former Texas senator John Tower, 65, his daughter Marian, astronaut Manley "Sonny" Carter, American College of Physicians president-elect Dr. Nicholas Davies, and N.A.T.O. liaison Dr. June T. Amlie, were among the 23 passengers and crew killed.Two children, Brian and Laura Birdsong, ages 9 and 6, also died in the accident. A statue was erected in their memory at Zoo Atlanta.
前德克萨斯州参议员约翰塔,65岁,他的女儿玛丽安,宇航员万利,“桑尼”卡特,尼古拉斯博士,美国医科大学戴维斯博士,和N.A.T.O.的朱.爱米丽,有23名乘客和机组人员丧生其中有两个孩子,布瑞恩和劳拉,年龄9岁和6岁,也在事故中死亡。一座纪念他们的雕像竖立在亚特兰大的动物园。

cz3354 at 2016-02-04 10:02:58
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如果Wikipedia没有中文版本 我建议您去直接创建页面,以帮助更多人。

beining ACI中文字幕组 at 2016-02-05 03:11:04
7

赞啊666

爱琪琪 at 2016-02-05 10:00:23
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