【旧闻】引擎失效总结三则【英文生肉】

By usernamejim at 2014-06-05 05:01:11 • 5799点击

1、The most engine failures in one flight (idea)
单次飞行中最多次的引擎失效
http://everything2.com/user/archiewood/writeups/The+most+engine+failures+in+one+flight
本楼中最有营养的一篇。
来自everything2.com, 作者archiewood,资料显示是一名ATC。文章提及了约13起引擎失效的案例,以引擎失效次数升序排列(猜猜谁是冠军),案例中不乏“敬业的机组”与“坑爹的队友”之身影。文章也浅析了引擎失效的原因与影响,以及作为ATC熟知引擎失效后果的必要性。

2、What happens when all engines failed in the air?
http://www.askcaptainlim.com/-air-safety-aviation-35/474-what-happens-when-all-engines-failed-in-the-air.html

作者Captain Lim,推测为一名机长。本文旨在向普通公众解释现代飞机全部引擎失效的影响及应对策略。文中提及了约3起案例,包括英航9和加航143。本文亮点在于提及了一些技术细节,如777引擎熄火后自动点火及双引擎失效后APU自动启动等。

3、
http://www.pilotfriend.com/training/flight_training/fxd_wing/engine_failure.htm
来自PilotFriend.com(飞行之友)。主要看点在于作为机组/乘客面对引擎失效时需要考量的因素及应对的步骤。比较全面,部分步骤准确性存疑。

4、补充:
http://everything2.com/user/archiewood/writeups
此为第一篇文章作者的论坛作品列表。其中比较有趣的有“”airliners that have gone supersonic and survived。
而原作者作为ATC,作品中也讲述了很多相关的专业性内容。
另外作者似乎对苏系战机情有独钟,早期发了很多相关文章。

25 回复 | 直到 2014-06-06 08:51:01

空中浩劫中引擎失效的不完全列表:
S01E03 越洋236 漏油
S02E02 大西洋东南529 螺旋桨损毁
S02E05 哥伦比亚52 盘旋过久、燃油耗尽
S03E06 埃塞俄比亚961 劫机、燃油耗尽
S04E02 英航9 吸入火山灰
S04E06 华航006 机械故障
S05E02 加航143 人为疏失、燃油耗尽
S05E06 (美)南方242 恶劣天气
S07E08 突尼斯国际1153 人为疏失、燃油耗尽
S09E01 英空旅28M 维修不当、机械故障
S10E02 英航38 冰阻塞油路
S10E03 北欧751 吸入异物、持续喘振
S10E05 全美1549 鸟击
S11E11 中美110 恶劣天气
S11E13 美联航232 制造不当、机械故障
S12E01 阿留申8 机械故障
S12E07 美航191 维修不当、机械故障
S12E08 美联航173 人为疏失、燃油耗尽
S13E09 NOAA飓风猎人42 机械故障
S13E10 澳航32 制造不当、机械故障

usernamejim at 2014-06-05 05:01:16
1

文章1部分重要段落翻译
Many things can cause the in-flight failure, or flame out, of an aircraft engine. Anything from icing to bird strikes, failure to put enough fuel in the tanks (hellooo, Air Canada), or a structural turbine failure (stand up, Pratt & Whitney).

飞机引擎失效/熄火的原因多种多样。从结冰到鸟击,没加足油(那边的加航看过来~看过来~),或是扇叶的结构失效(说的就是你,普惠!)。

During the time I spent at ATC college, the topic of emergencies was covered in some depth. The importance of knowing the aircraft type when an emergency is declared was impressed upon us, more so on some who didn't immediately grasp that an engine failure is potentially far less serious for a Boeing 747, which has four engines, than it is for a Piper Cherokee, which only has one. Was this noder included in such admonishment? Not telling.

单引擎失效对引擎数目不同的飞机而言,其严重性有天壤之别。原因不言而喻——对四发的747,单引擎失效只是点小问题;对单引擎的小飞机来说,单引擎失效会令飞行员会汗流浃背的,毕竟那是他们的全部动力。

The potential ambiguities in language used during emergencies was also mentioned; such language should be carefully checked, we were told, particularly considering the high stress levels such a situation can provoke. More than one airliner has been lost because engines literally fell off, and the pilots' report to ATC that they had "lost" said engines was interpreted merely as them failing, since the vernacular is, rather inconveniently, the same.

作为ATC,笔者也学到要细致核对引擎失效的具体情形,以正确评估其严重程度,而非在压力下手忙脚乱。引擎脱落导致的坠机不乏先例,而飞行员向ATC说明事态时ATC常常以为他们只是有一个引擎不工作了。

After wanting to node one incident in particular—and I'll leave it to you to guess which one it was—and after my writeup with 'survived' in the title, I got thinking about flights that had suffered in-flight engine failures and still made it home. Some of those must have been pretty unusual, right? Yes, it turns out. In the interest of some semblance of structure, perhaps we should go through the incidents in ascending number of engine failures per aircraft, in a sort of inverse countdown, before we reach our winner with the greatest number. A combustion failure compendium. A fascicle of flame-outs. A shock of shutdowns. An engine failure hit parade, if you will.

本文着重关注经历引擎失效而平安返回的航机,并按引擎失效次数升序排列,带大家领略一系列的引擎失效案例。——各位可以先猜猜谁是冠军。

usernamejim at 2014-06-05 05:20:10
2

双引擎的小飞机如果单发。考验飞行员脚力的时刻就到了。。

doles ACI中文字幕组 at 2014-06-05 07:37:50
3

@doles 阿留申8可是四引擎飞机,单发失效还要考验飞行员的臂力...

usernamejim at 2014-06-05 09:30:09
4

哎,我是英文白板啊。还是让给有基础的年轻人来讨论吧。

cdlsz at 2014-06-05 10:18:32
5

@cdlsz

我也将尽量翻译关键的段落以便大家阅读。

此外,英语作为一门工具语言,在了解海外客观咨询、欣赏影视作品、促进工作及出国旅游等方面还是颇有作用的。
英语也并不难学,我所在大学很多教工如保安、清洁员、厨师等也不乏工作期间学成英语者。
或许您也可以尝试定期投入一点精力学习英语的。
对初学者而言,使用软件每日背诵单词、睡前听新概念英语都是行之有效的方法。

有句话叫
It's never too old to learn.
活到老,学到老。/任何时候学习都不晚。

谨与您共勉。

usernamejim at 2014-06-05 13:06:23
6

等会我一点点翻

尼玛死 笑的肚子都疼了 wwwww

beining ACI中文字幕组 at 2014-06-05 18:41:38
7

@usernamejim
谢谢你的勉励。快奔五了,没精力了。

cdlsz at 2014-06-05 22:14:20
8

Single engine failure
单引擎失效
Pah. Small potatoes. Yes, lots of single-engined aircraft—and some multi-engined aircraft—have been lost to a single engine failure, boo hoo hoo, but they're way down on this list of morbid prestige. I'd be here all day listing examples proportionally. If you absolutely insist, however, here's an interesting example of a single engine failure; an unusual capturing of a bird ingestion by a Boeing 757 at Manchester Airport (Ringway), complete with dialogue between the pilots and ATC.
单引擎失效真的太稀松平常了,虽然不少多引擎的飞机也曾因单引擎失效而坠毁。
这是一段墙外珍贵视频,记录了一架757在地面吸鸟导致单引擎失效的过程及ATC通话。
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9KhZwsYtNDE
Off the top of my head, at least one heavy—a DC-10—has been lost to an engine literally falling off, and several 747s have had nasty moments as a result of the same. Part of the problem there is that the engines of a jetliner are difficult or impossible to see from the cockpit, so it's not always obvious whether you've lost an engine or lost an engine. An engine can severely damage an aircraft when detaching so knowing what's happened is critical, but it can be difficult for the crew to tell. Especially if the aircraft is a freighter with no windows besides those in the cockpit.
单引擎失效中,引擎整体脱落造成的损害尤甚。根据笔者记忆,由于这个原因至少毁了一架DC10(美航191),并令几架747陷入险境。引擎脱落的讨厌之处在于在大型喷气机的驾驶舱内很难看见引擎的情况。而货机更由于机舱内缺乏窗户而难以了解事态。
Coincidentally, Japan Airlines Flight 46E was a Boeing 747 freighter. It departed Anchorage for O'Hare on March 31, 1993. Shortly after takeoff and passing through 2,000 feet it flew through severe turbulence, experienced an uncommanded left bank of about 50° and airspeed fluctuations between 170 knots and 245 knots, which is quite high for that altitude. Moments later the #2 engine fell off, taking a large chunk of the flaps for that wing with it.
Despite severe control problems, exacerbated by the turbulent weather, the crew were able to land the aircraft safely, unaware an engine had detached. The subsequent investigation concluded that turbulence had exceeded the lateral load capacity of the engine pylon, which was already weakened by fatigue cracks.
以日航46E,一架波音747货机为例。93年3月31日,愚人节的前一天,这架747从安克雷奇起飞飞往俄亥俄。起飞后不久,在仅仅2000英尺高度,飞机遭遇严重乱流,不受控地左倾50度,空速在170节到245节之间剧烈变化。2号引擎由于派龙(挂架)过载及已经有疲劳裂纹而整体脱落,并扯下了一片襟翼。机智的机组安全地将货机降落,那之后在了解到事态的严重性。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:49:32
9

In other happy fun times, passengers going to the toilet has caused an engine to fall off at least three Boeing 727s in flight, and caused an engine shutdown on two others. In all cases the blame was laid on ice accumulating around a service panel on the fuselage near the outlet for the cabin lavatory. The ice broke away in-flight and was ingested by one of the engines, which on the 727 are all at the rear. In three cases the subsequent, dead stoppage of the turbine resulted in the engine wrenching itself off the fuselage. However, all aircraft landed safely without injuries, and the NTSB issued a safety recommendation to improve panel seals that (eventually) resulted in Airworthiness Directives from the FAA, so it's all good.
在其他欢脱的日子里,3架727的引擎由于乘客上厕所而脱落,还有两架的引擎受损而关闭。原因?厕所漏水,结冰,冰块最终脱落并打坏后置的引擎。在三个引擎脱落的案例中,损坏的扇叶止挡导致引擎剧烈振动扭曲直至被扯下来。FAA对这种冲水能冲掉引擎的事情实在看不下去了,发了适航性指令,所以现在已经没必要为防止引擎脱落而不在727上用厕所了。
Thinking about the whole are-all-my-engines-present thing, it's interesting to consider AAL191 - the DC-10 that crashed after an engine detaching. Simulator tests done after the mishap found that even experienced pilots were unable to recover from the conditions of the incident if they went in blind; only pilots that knew an engine had separated from the wing took the correct actions to recover.
至于美航191,ACI中的讨论已经十分详尽。简单来说,只有飞行员知道引擎脱落的事态后才有希望救回那飞机。不幸的是,他们不知道。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:49:47
10

Double engine failure
双引擎失效
A little more interesting; Boeing, Airbus, Gulfstream, Embraer and several other 'factors all have hundreds, if not thousands of twinjets in service, many of which have suffered in-flight engine failures for one reason or another.
Again, even restricting to the "interesting" incidents would probably exceed the writeup character limit so here's just a few of them.
这就开始有点意思了,仅举几个典型的例子。
Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701
This was a ferry flight of a Bombardier CRJ-200 from Little Rock to Minneapolis on October 14, 2004. With no passengers and a quiet night flight ahead, the pilots decided to try to join the ranks of those who had taken the CRJ-200 to its maximum cruising altitude of Flight Level 410 (about 41,000 feet). Although successful, in doing so they exceeded the aircraft's maximum climb rate, and stalled it when they got there by flying too slowly. This shouldn't have been much of a problem since they were at 41,000 feet with plenty of air beneath them in which to recover; unfortunately they overrode the anti-stall mechanism that would have nosed down to gain some airspeed, and overstressed the engines by trying to maintain altitude which eventually resulted in both engines flaming out.
Despite six attempts to relight the engines—using both the auxiliary power unit, and the windmill method, involving a dive to increase speed so the airflow rotates the engines fast enough to relight them—neither engine rotated at all, suggesting that expansion damage incurred by the overheat and abrupt shutdown had seized both engines completely.
Although the crew initially recovered from the stall, the fact that they were unable to relight either engine meant that aircraft systems which depended on the engines for power, such as the cabin pressurization systems and the hydraulics, ceased operating. The crew had to don oxygen masks and deploy the ram air turbine (a small turbine generator which pops out from the fuselage) in order to power the flight controls.
Only after 14 minutes of failed attempts to restart the engines—and a concomitant loss of almost 30,000 feet—did the crew finally report to ATC that both engines had failed. The amount of altitude lost in the attempts to restart the engines left the aircraft with insufficient altitude or speed to reach any diversion airfields and it crashed outside Jefferson City, killing both crew members.
The investigation blamed unprofessional behaviour by the pilots for causing the initial upset, and failing to properly follow the engine restart procedures or to prepare for an emergency landing.
美国顶峰航空3701
这是一架庞巴迪CRJ200支线喷气机,2004年10月14日从小石城出发飞往明尼阿波里斯市。由于没有乘客而又是寂静乏味的夜晚,闲极无聊的机组决定刷一下CRJ200飞机最大升限(41,000英尺)的成就。他们成功了,但由于爬升过猛而导致失速。机组没有采取正确的改出方式而在低空速下过度推油门,导致两个引擎都熄火。当机组6次点火都不成功时,他们终于意识到引擎已经被他们玩坏了。他们在掉了30,000英尺的时候才想起来和ATC汇报,但已没有足够高度到邻近机场。没有动力的飞机坠毁在杰斐逊市郊,两位飞行员都在事件中身亡。调查赞扬了两位飞行员作大死的无畏精神,以及不按套路改出失速、重启引擎和迫降的机智做法...

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:50:03
11

Air Canada Flight 143
This was a Boeing 767 on a flight from Montreal to Edmonton on July 23, 1983. The aircraft ran out of fuel in cruise at 41,000ft which resulted in the flameout of both engines in the space of a few minutes. The 767 was one of the first aircraft to use the Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS), which informed various cockpit display systems typically depended on for safe flight. An engine failure left most of these displays dead, and likewise the flight control systems. The ram air turbine was deployed, which gave a measure of flight control, and some rudimentary instrumentation did remain, which could be used to effect a landing.
Although the crew was diverting to Winnipeg after the failure of the first engine, the failure of the second left them unable to reach it, and moreover there was no documentation in the cockpit on flying the aircraft with no engines. Fortunately the captain was an experienced glider pilot, and with the help of ATC calculated that he could reach a former airbase at Gimli that he used to fly from.
Unfortunately, the lack of hydraulics meant that not only could the flaps and slats (devices which increase lift and drag in low-speed situations) not be deployed, but that the landing gear could not be locked into position either. The relatively low speed of the aircraft as it approached the landing strip—which was being used for public drag racing that day—meant that the power being produced by the ram air turbine was decreasing, making the aircraft more difficult to control. However, it was still too fast for a safe landing, and without sufficient altitude to circle to bleed off airspeed. After executing a forward slip manoeuvre, the 767 landed roughly on one of the airfield runways, thankfully avoiding anyone on the ground, who would not have heard its approach.

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:50:47
12

The unlocked nosewheel collapsed on landing and a small fire started in the nose area, but this was quickly put out after the aircraft had come to a stop, by safety personnel attending the racing events at the airfield. The only injuries occurred during the evacuation from the tail section, which was high in the air because of the collapsed nosewheel.
The investigation, while praising the airmanship of the crew in landing the aircraft safely, also criticized them and the maintenance staff of Air Canada for failing to correctly allocate the task of checking the aircraft\'s fuel load; this would normally have been done by the aircraft\'s flight engineer, but the 767 was the first jetliner to eliminate this position. Canada was transitioning from the imperial to metric system of measurement at the time; although fuel quantity had been correctly calculated in kilograms, it was metered in pounds when the aircraft was fueled, which gave less than half the amount actually required. The Captain was demoted for six months, and the First Officer and three maintenance workers were suspended.
The aircraft suffered only minor damage during the landing, and after repairs continued to fly for Air Canada (with the informal nickname \"Gimli Glider\") until 2008, when it was retired to the Mojave Desert.
加航143,参见空中浩劫S05E02。简单说来,这架767由于加油错误在飞行中耗尽燃料,技术超群的机师成功迫降在吉米利——一个赛车场。调查褒奖了飞行员的技术,而批评了加油流程中出现的疏失。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:51:05
13

British Airways Flight 038
You have probably heard of this one, which occurred in January 2008; it is notable because it resulted in so far the only first hull loss of a Boeing 777, which is the largest twin-engine jetliner in service (also the proud carrier of the most powerful jet engines ever fitted to anything, fact fans).
During final approach to London Heathrow Airport, after a 13-hour flight from Beijing, Boeing 777 G-YMMM suffered an "uncommanded rollback" of both engines simultaneously, two miles from touchdown at 720 feet. The autopilot attempted to maintain the correct glideslope by pitching up and increasing the throttle but both engines failed to respond, and the aircraft hit the ground 200 feet short of runway 27L. The impact collapsed the landing gear, forcing the right strut up into the passenger cabin and the left strut into the wing, puncturing one of the fuel tanks. Although several passengers were injured during the incident—including a compound fracture caused when the left landing gear strut entered the cabin—there were no fatalities or fire, and the aircraft was successfully evacuated.
After an investigation lasting almost two years, the UK Air Accidents Investigation Branch was unable to precisely replicate the failure conditions of the incident but concluded that the rollback had been caused by ice forming on a fuel-oil heat exchanger, which had restricted fuel flow. The aircraft had encountered unusually cold conditions during its flight, which had caused a high volume of ice crystals to form in its fuel (small quantities of water are normally present in jet fuel). Following the investigation both the AAIB and the AmericanNTSB requested a redesign of the offending heat exchanger from Rolls Royce, which manufactured the engines fitted to G-YMMM, and Boeing has issued guidelines for pilots to prevent and deal with such blockages on 777 until the parts are replaced.
All of BA38's flight crew were awarded the British Airways Safety Medal after the incident, and the aircraft has now been broken up.
英航38,参见空中浩劫S10E02。这是目前为之777的唯一一次全毁(如果不计日后的韩亚和马航…),顺便告诉那些数据帝,这飞机也有着这世界上最强力的涡扇引擎。这次调查十分艰难,细节可参见空中浩劫S10E02。机组事后受到了严肃表扬,损毁的飞机则被拆解。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:51:21
14

Triple engine failure
We're getting into unusual territory now, so this definitely warrants the raise of both eyebrows.
三引擎失效,已经开始十分有趣了。
Eastern Airlines Flight 855
This was a Lockheed L-1011 (aka 'Tristar') tri-jet on a flight from Miami to Nassau. 54 miles from destination, during descent for landing, the oil pressure warning light for #2 engine (the one in the tail) lit. The crew immediately shut down the engine. This is nominally no problem; all multi-engined aircraft are required to be able to fly for a minimum amount of time if an engine fails (the exact amount depends on where the aircraft is flying, and the aircraft type). So while less efficient, the Tristar should still have been able to make it to Nassau on two engines. However, weather was severe at Nassau at the time and although it was over twice the distance, the crew decided to turn back to Miami, guessing they could be on the ground sooner.
Less than ten minutes after #2 engine had been shut down, oil pressure warnings lit for engines #1 and #3. Considering the teeny chances of losing oil for all three engines at the same time, the crew assumed that the indicator lights were faulty and in the words of the Captain were "only slightly alarmed." After some system checks showed everything to be normal, and after engine #3 seized completely about five minutes later, they presumably became slightly more alarmed. With only one engine left, and evidence suggesting little time remained before it went the same way as the others, preparations were made for ditching in the Atlantic.
Just over half an hour after takeoff, having descended to 13,000 feet, engine #1 finally let go. There was no chance of gliding back to land from this altitude, and the crew began frenzied attempts to restart engine #2. Repeated attempts at the in-flight engine restart procedure failed, and in a (hah) last-ditch effort, the ground start procedure was tried, which finally brought #2 engine back to life, just 3,000 feet above the ocean and 34 miles from Miami. One engine was at least enough for level flight, and the aircraft was able to land safely, after which engine #2 failed again, stranding them on a taxiway.
When the crew got off the plane they were met by a foreman from line maintenance, who knew exactly what had happened: working on the aircraft the previous night by torchlight and car headlamps (seriously), two mechanics had fitted sensors to all three engines without fitting oil seals, which had allowed oil to leak out when the engines were running. Engine #2 had less than one minute of oil left after landing.
(美)东方航空855
洛克希德三星机,迈阿密飞往拿索。距目的地不到20分钟的时候,二号引擎润滑油油压低的警告响起。机组关掉了那个引擎。10分钟后,一号、三号引擎的油压低警告也响了。考虑到目的地天气恶劣、不适合紧急情况下的降落,机组决定返航迈阿密。开始机组还不拿警告当回事——毕竟别的指标都正常就这三个油压低警告响个没完。之后惊险时刻来了,三号、一号引擎相继失效,警告席卷而来,飞机甚至一度处于无法飞回陆地的险境。最后2号引擎终于成功启动,并安全带机组回了迈阿密。在跑道上,2号引擎也挂了,飞机无助地停在了滑行道上。
时候机修小哥讲述了问题所在——晚上灯光昏暗,两个机修更换3个引擎的某个传感器时都忘了放垫片,于是三个引擎的润滑油都逐渐漏光了。降落的时候,2号引擎的余油还能坚持仅仅1分钟,真是千钧一发。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:51:32
15

American Airlines DC-4
This doesn't strictly belong in this writeup, but I'm including it because I don't know what other topic it could come under, and because it amused me.
In October 1947, an American Airlines DC-4 was making a hop from Dallas to Los Angeles. Along with the two Captains, a third was also hitching a ride in the cockpit in the jump seat. This guy thought it would be a great joke to engage the aircraft's gust lock in flight without telling the other two Captains.
What does the gust lock do? It locks the aircraft's control surfaces (elevators, ailerons, what have you) in position so that they won't flap around in the wind when the aircraft is on the ground. Yes, you can probably already see that engaging this in-flight was a cerebral move.
The effect of this, aside from the obvious of making the aircraft almost impossible to control, is that it reversed the effect of the trim controls. If you've ever looked at the ailerons, elevators or rudder on an aircraft you might have noticed that there was a baby, nested version of each control surface. Like this:
______
/ |
/ +----+
/ | |
/ | +-+
/ | | |
/ | | |
/ | +-+
/ +----+
The baby control surface is the trim tab for the control surface it's mounted on. Its position is adjusted using a small wheel in the cockpit, and it can apply a constant force to the control surface it's attached to. This is used to maintain straight and level flight; for instance, the weight balance of an aircraft might mean that it tends to nose up slightly when in flight; the trim can be adjusted so that the elevators always counteract this tendency without the pilot having to keep constant pressure on the control column.
Now, trim tabs move in the opposite direction to their effect: if the trim tabs on the elevators are raised, the aircraft will 'try' to pitch down. If the trim tab on the right aileron is lowered, the aircraft will 'try' to roll to the right. This is important.
So, back in the DC-4, the flying Captain noticed that the aircraft seemed to be resisting his control and trim inputs. The reason? The main control surfaces were locked in position, meaning that the trim tabs had in effect become the main control surfaces, so their effect was reversed. The more the crew tried to trim the aircraft for a descent, the more it climbed. Not only that, but the more trim that was being applied, the greater effect it was 'trying' to have on the main control surfaces.

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:52:00
16

So it was just awesome when the jump seat Captain decided to disengage the gust lock, again without telling either of the pilots. He hit the switch, the elevators snapped to their maximum pitch-down position, and the aircraft immediately went into a steep dive. Neither the flying Captain nor the jump seat Captain had their seatbelts fastened, and they were flung into the cockpit ceiling as the aircraft began making an outside loop.
I guess you're wondering where engine failure comes into all this...well, it turns out three of the DC-4's four piston engines were feathered (cutting their thrust to virtually zero) whenthe heads of the unbelted Captains hit three of the four 'engine feather' switches on the cockpit ceiling. So while not quite a failure, it wasn't exactly a deliberate power reduction either.
This was actually quite good, since a dive at full power would almost certainly have resulted in the aircraft disintegrating mid-air before crashing into the desert beneath it. As it was, the Captain acting as First Officer, who was strapped in, was able to restore power and right the aircraft when it reached the upside-down portion of the loop, before making a promptemergency landing. The passengers escaped with a few minor injuries from being similarly hurled against the cabin roof.
Needless to say, the jump seat Captain didn't fly for American again after that.
1947年,一架美航DC4。两位机长掌舵,还有一位搭便车的机长。那位搭便车的机长闲的蛋疼想和同事开个玩笑,偷偷把阵风锁锁上了。这一锁不要紧,所有的控制面都动不了了,能调的只剩配平片,而且还是与习惯相反地调节。两位掌舵机长没发现问题所在,情况越来越糟。调皮的机长终于决定把阵风锁松开。这一松不要紧,由于之前依靠配平片进行调节,飞机的控制面很快大幅度偏转,一位忘系安全带的机长脑袋撞上顶板,顺桨了4部引擎中的3部。在这个案例中,引擎没挂,但顺桨的引擎的确是产生不了任何动力的。飞机一度以危险的姿态与G力飞行,几乎空中解体或撞地。最后飞机成功降落并疏散了乘客,仅有几例轻伤。
不用说,那个捣蛋的机长砸了饭碗。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:52:25
17

National Airlines 727
I'm including this one in a nod to the more usual. On January 27, 1978, a Boeing 727 tri-jet was making a trip from Newark to Fort Lauderdale, when all three engines flamed out during cruise, in the vicinity of Orlando. There is little narrative available on this incident so I don't know what happened next, or how long it lasted.
It turned out that the flight engineer had accidentally switched off the fuel pumps for all three engines, causing fuel starvation and flameout. The mistake was discovered and the flight continued without further incident, landing safely at Ft. Lauderdale. Oops.
1978年1月27日,一架波音727从纽瓦尔飞往劳德代尔堡。巡航到奥兰多附近,3个引擎熄火。原因是飞航工程师不小心关闭了全部三部向引擎供油的油泵。飞机安全降落在劳德代尔堡。

Quadruple engine failure
四引擎失效
We're getting into heavy territory now—literally, since only aircraft in the 'heavy' wake vortex category have four engines, and it's rather difficult to find details on multiple engine failures, which fewer-engined aircraft would need to reach this category.
这已经濒临未知领域了,出现过这一状况的飞机屈指可数。
KLM Flight 867
This was a Boeing 747-400 on a flight to Narita International Airport from Amsterdam on December 15, 1989. While descending for a scheduled stop at Anchorage, the aircraft flew through the ash cloud from the eruption of Mount Redoubt. The pilot reported the cloud to ATC, but evidently its spread was greater than it seemed, since he subsequently reported smoke in the cockpit. After turning and attempting to climb to get out of the cloud, all four engines on the 747 shut down.
After an unplanned descent of about 14,000 feet, punctuated by frantic attempts to relight the engines, the aircraft broke out of the cloud and the crew was able to get the engines restarted. The aircraft landed safely, with no injuries, but about $80 million worth of damage. Volcanic ash is extremely abrasive and most of the aircraft's leading edges, and engines, had to be repaired or replaced.
荷航867,波音744.1989年12月15日从成田飞往阿姆斯特丹。在安克雷奇经停时吸入里道特火山喷出的火山灰。四引擎熄火。飞机最终成功降落,无人伤亡,但损失高达8千万美元——整架飞机都被火山灰磨损了,蒙皮、气动面、引擎等许多部件需要维修或更换。
United Airlines Boeing 747
Again, back in slightly-less-weird world, a UA Boeing 747 (registration N4761U, if you want to look it up) in cruise at 39,000 feet en-route from San Francisco to Honolulu, suffered a complete failure of all four engines. Sadly I couldn't find a narrative of what happened next, but according to the NTSB it decended 13,000 feet towards the Pacific before the engines were successfully relit.
Usefully, the 'probable cause' section of the NTSB report reads: POWERPLANT FAILURE FOR UNDETERMINED REASONS. Phew. I was worried there'd be nothing that could be done to avoid it happening again.
Well, sadly we're drawing to the close of this little round-up. That just leaves...
美航波音747,注册号N4761U。旧金山飞往檀香山。四引擎失效,掉了13,000英尺后成功重启。NTSB调查的结论是“未知原因所致的发电机失效”。
这篇文章已接近尾声,就剩下了一个案例——

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:52:36
18

Quintuple engine failure
五引擎失效!
British Airways Flight 009
英航009(参见空中浩劫S04E02)
We have a winner! This was a Boeing 747-200 on a flight from London to Auckland, on June 24, 1982. But wait! you say. The 747 only has four engines! Yes, but I'm counting enginefailures, not engines.
赢家出现——英航在1982年6月24日从伦敦飞往奥克兰的一架742。这架4引擎的飞机刷出了5次引擎失效,着实不易,撒花撒花~~~
Approaching Indonesia from the Indian Ocean, cruising at 37,000 feet, the flight crew noticed a St. Elmo's Fire-like effect on the cockpit windscreen, and a smell of sulphur. Smoke was also seen gathering in the passenger cabin. Nothing was on the aircraft's weather radar. Passengers in the cabin could see light coming from inside the engines.
细节参看空中浩劫S04E02,简单说来,飞机飞进了火山灰,光影绚烂,舱内出现烟尘,不久飞机引擎陆续熄火。
A couple of minutes after this began, engine #4 (right outboard) began surging and flamed out. About a minute later, the other three engines died in the space of a few seconds, prompting probably the most famous cabin announcement in commercial aviation history:
Ladies and gentlemen, this is your Captain speaking. We have a small problem. All four engines have stopped. We are doing our damnedest to get it under control. I trust you are not in too much distress.
这次飞行中机长对乘客的讲话可以载入史册了:
女士们、先生们,我是你们的机长。我们有一个“小”问题,我们的四部引擎都熄火了。我们正™全力控制事态。相信你们都能保持镇定。
The crew declared an emergency, advising Jakarta air traffic control that all four engines had failed, but this was misunderstood to mean only engine #4 had failed. The crew calculated the aircraft could only glide about 90 miles, and a minimum altitude was needed to cross the coastal mountains of Indonesia safely; if this was not achievable, the crew would turn the plane around and attempt to ditch in the Indian Ocean (which, to date, would have been the only time this had been attempted in a 747).
As the aircraft descended, many unsuccessful attempts were made to restart the engines. While this was going on the passengers reported seeing streams of flame, disturbingly, trailing from all four engines. Many assumed they were going to die and wrote messages to their loved ones.
飞机第一时间向ATC汇报情况,但由于静电干扰和距离遥远,ATC一度以为他们只有四号引擎失效了。飞机不足以滑翔至临近机场,机组紧张而有序地重启引擎,祈祷不要被迫在海面迫降。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:52:49
19

As the aircraft approached the altitude at which the crew would have to turn around to avoid the mountains, engine #4 finally relit. Although this wasn't enough to maintain level flight, it was able to reduce the rate of descent. Soon afterwards, engine #2 also restarted, allowing a gradual climb, and engines #1 and #3 followed in short order. The Captain then requested, and began, a climb back to 15,000 feet to clear the mountains.
一段时间后粘着的火山灰逐渐冷却脱落,引擎陆续重启,飞机飞往临近机场降落。
As the aircraft was reaching this altitude, the St. Elmo's Fire effect returned to the cockpit windscreen, and engine #2 began surging again and had to be shut down (failure number five). The crew descended again until the effect subsided, and diverted to Jakarta for an emergency landing.
结果又碰到了火山灰,2号引擎喘振喷火,并被关闭(第5次引擎失效!2号引擎君劳苦功高!)。机组这回找到窍门了,降高脱离了火山灰云,并在雅加达安全降落。
On approach to the airport, the crew found it virtually impossible to see the runway lights, since they were being so diffused by the cockpit windscreen. The approach was done almost entirely using instruments, and one small section of the cockpit window that was relatively clear. Upon safely landing the crew also found it impossible to navigate the airport's taxiways, due to the glare from airport floodlighting, and had to stop and wait for a tug.
降落时还有段小插曲,由于风挡也被火山灰磨损,机组向外看去模糊一片,依靠风挡上硕果仅存的一小块完好区域对准跑道降落了。由于机场灯光在被刮毛的风挡上产生了强烈眩光,机组在机场中又迷路了,不得不等拖车。
It turned out that the 747 had flown through the ash cloud from the eruption of Mount Galunggung. The engines had been shut down by the ingestion of volcanic ash, which had also caused the strobe effect on the cockpit windscreen and the engines. The streams of fire passengers had seen during the restart attempts was unburnt fuel igniting outside the engines. Once the ash in the engines had cooled somewhat, enough of it had broken away and left the engines to allow them to restart. The visibility problems had been caused by ash abrading the cockpit windscreen, rendering it almost completely opaque. The covers on the landing lights had suffered similarly.
After landing, three of the four engines were replaced, as well as the cockpit windscreen. The fuel tanks had to be drained and cleaned, and much time was spent continuing the repairs back at London, during which time the aircraft was nicknamed the "flying ashtray."
事件后飞机大修,更换了3个引擎和驾驶舱风挡等。飞机得一美名——飞行烟灰缸...
I remember this one because an instructor relayed the story during a lesson while I was at ATC college. Curious as to what had happened to the 747 involved, at the time named City of Edinburgh, I looked up its registration number (G-BDXH) on my friend airliners.net. Turned out it was sold to some European charter company but had since retired...to a breaker's yard behind Bournemouth International Airport, just a few hundred metres away from me, sadly sans wings. Small world.
那架飞机后来几经易手,退役而被放在了伯恩茅斯国际机场,离笔者所在仅仅几百米。世界真小!

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:53:03
20

Denouement
So, there we have it. The record for the greatest number of non-fatal engine failures is held by Boeing 747-200 G-BDXH, also the temporary holder of the record for the longest glide in a non-purpose-built aircraft.
In other news: uh, all other aircraft have had fewer engine failures than this.
If you take anything away from this node, perhaps it should be that engine failure won't necessarily kill you.Especially if you have more than one.
尾声
我们终于找到了引擎失效次数的冠军!撒花~这架飞机目前也保持了非滑翔机的滑翔记录(真的?)。这也意味着,嗯,其他飞机还没经历过这么多次的引擎失效。
这篇文章的核心思想是,引擎失效不太会杀死你,尤其是你有不止一个引擎的时候。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 02:53:17
21

@beining 随手翻了一些,质量很糙,不过大概把笑点说明白了。笑得肚子疼...
PS 双引号也存在转义问题,在13楼。16楼排版出了点问题,那个飞机垂尾图案的空格丢了。鉴于目前还改不了回复的内容,或许我该试试把翻译贴到顶楼。

usernamejim at 2014-06-06 03:26:19
22



我测试一下是否会自动变成图片。。。

纯洁的小y at 2014-06-06 04:33:25
23

@纯洁的小y

以后如果不会变,召唤一下我们,我们后台加白名单就好了。安全考虑。

@usernamejim 我们会弄的。

beining ACI中文字幕组 at 2014-06-06 04:39:56
24

我也试试看。

doles ACI中文字幕组 at 2014-06-06 08:51:01
25
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